Maraviroc plus raltegravir failed to maintain virological suppression in HIV-infected patients with lipohypertrophy: results from the ROCnRAL ANRS 157 study generic 20 mg levitra professional fast delivery impotence at 70. TRIZAL study: switching from successful HAART to Trizivir (abacavir lamivu- dine-zidovudine combination tablet): 48 weeks efficacy buy 20mg levitra professional with visa cough syrup causes erectile dysfunction, safety and adherence results generic levitra professional 20 mg visa zopiclone impotence. Switch to efavirenz (EFV) after protease-inhibitor (PI)-failure: explorative analysis of outcome by baseline viral VS tolerability failure. Factors associated with virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Factors associated with virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Resistant minority species are rarely observed in patients on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Targeting only reverse transcriptase with zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir plus tenofovir in HIV-1-infected patients with multidrug-resistant virus: a multicentre pilot study. The safety and efficacy of switching stavudine to tenofovir df in com- bination with lamivudine and efavirenz in hiv-1-infected patients: three-year follow-up after switching therapy. Efficacy and safety of switching from boosted lopinavir to boosted atazanavir in patients with virological suppression receiving a LPV/r-containing HAART: the ATAZIP study. J AIDS 2009, 51:29-36 Marcelin AG, Lambert-Niclot S, Peytavin G, et al. Baseline HIV RNA ultrasensitive assay and viral DNA predict rise in plasma viral load in patients of MONOI-ANRS 136 Trial. Induction with abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine plus efavirenz for 48 weeks followed by 48-week maintenance with abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine alone in antiretroviral-naive HIV- 1-infected patients. 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Strength of evidence for the comparative efficacy of LTRA + ICS and LABA + ICS Number of Overall studies Other strength (# of modifying of subjects) Design Quality Consistency Directness Magnitude of effect factors evidence Overall total: LTRA plus ICS compared with LABA plus ICS Controller medications for asthma 257 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 1 (6 quality 20 mg levitra professional erectile dysfunction yoga,030) 1 SR Good Consistent Direct ICS+LABA > ICS+LTRA None High w/ MA Exacerbations requiring 8 (5 discount levitra professional 20mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment drugs,459) 8 Good systemic steroids (RR 0 purchase 20 mg levitra professional with amex erectile dysfunction protocol diet. Strength of evidence for the comparative efficacy of ICS + LABA and LTRA + LABA Number of studies Other Overall (# of Result (magnitude of modifying strength of subjects) Design Quality Consistency Directness effect) factors evidence Montelukast plus Salmeterol compared with Beclomethasone plus Salmeterol RCT, ICS+LABA > Composite 1 (192) cross- Fair NA Direct Moderate LTRA+LABA outcome over Abbreviations: ICS = Inhaled Corticosteroids; LABAs = Long-Acting Beta-2 Agonists; LTRAs = Leukotriene receptor antagonists; RCT= randomized controlled trial. Strength of evidence for tolerability and frequency of adverse events of BUD/FM compared with FP/SM No. Strength of evidence for tolerability and frequency of adverse events of BUD/FM compared with FP/SM No. Meta-analyses Ciclesonide Meta-Analysis Results Ciclesonide compared with fluticasone Summary of outcomes evaluated: 1. Oral Candidiasis (Thrush) Results Exacerbations (studies using the same definition of exacerbation) Studies included: Bateman et al. Includes all doses (Magnussen (a) is CIC 80 mcg v FP 88 mcg Bateman and Boulet are CIC 320 mcg v FP 330 or 200 mcg; Magnussen (b) is CIC 160 mcg once/day v FP 88 mcg bid; Dahl is CIC 80 mcg once/day v 100mcg FP bid). Controller medications for asthma 260 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Exacerbations (All studies, regardless of definition) Studies included: Bateman et al. The overall effect measure should be interpreted cautiously. Ciclesonide v Fluticasone - Rescue medication puffs per day Study name Statistics for each study Std diff in means and 95% CI Std diff Standard Lower Upper in means error Variance limit limit Z-Valuep-Value Bateman, 2008 0. The overall effect measure should be interpreted cautiously. Ciclesonide v Fluticasone - Symptom Score Study name Statistics for each study Std diff in means and 95% CI Std diff Standard Lower Upper in means error Variance limit limit Z-Valuep-Value Bateman, 2008 0. CIC: Odds Ratios for Oral Candidiasis-Thrush Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit Z-Value p-Value Bateman 2008 0. Controller medications for asthma 265 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Omalizumab Meta-Analysis Results All studies compare Omalizumab with Placebo. Percentage of patients with one or more exacerbation 3. Change in AQLQ score Results Number of Exacerbations per Patient: Updated Analysis Studies included: Busse et al. ICS+LABA (Combination products) M e ta -Analysis Results Summary of Outcomes Evaluated: 1. Exacerbations requiring emergency visit/hospital admission Study compares fixed Dose Combo of BUD/FM with Fixed Dose Combo FP/SM Data were gathered from the individual articles when possible; when exacerbation data were not reported in the articles, available data were gathered by contacting the authors or from a published systematic review (Lasserson, 2008). Exacerbations requiring oral steroids Studies included: Aalbers et al. Fluticasone+Salmeterol - Exacerbations (requiring oral steroids) Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit p-Value Aalbers et al 2004; Aalbers et al 2010 1. Controller medications for asthma 269 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Exacerbations requiring emergency visit/hospital admission Studies included: Aalbers et al. Fluticasone+Salmeterol - Exacerbations (requiring ER/hospital admission) Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit p-Value Aalbers et al 2004; Aalbers et al 2010 0. The overall result became significant in favor of BUD + FM when Dahl et al, 2006 [OR 0. Sensitivity Analyses – Exacerbations (requiring ER/hospital admission – BUD+FM vs. FP+SM - Exacerbations (requiring ER/hospital admission) Sensitivity Analysis Study name Statistics with study removed Odds ratio (95%CI) with study removed Lower Upper Point limit limit Z-Value p-Value Aalbers et al 2004; Aalbers et al 2010 0. BUD/FM except Kuna et al 2007 and price et al 2007, which in addition, compares BUD/FM MART vs. Severe exacerbations requiring medical intervention 2. Severe exacerbations requiring emergency visit or hospital admission 3. Nocturnal Awakenings Severe exacerbations requiring medical intervention Studies included: Vogelmeier et al. ICS/LABA Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit p-Value Bousquet 2007 0. Controller medications for asthma 271 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Severe exacerbations requiring emergency visit or hospital admission Studies included: Vogelmeier et al. ICS/LABA Study name Statistics for each study Odds ratio and 95% CI Odds Lower Upper ratio limit limit p-Value Bousquet 2007 0. Controller medications for asthma 272 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Rescue medication use (puffs/day) – Updated Analysis Studies included: Vogelmeier et al. ICS/LABA Study name Statistics for each study Std diff in means and 95% CI Std diff Standard Lower Upper in means error Variance limit limit Z-Value p-Value Vogelmeier, 2005 -0. Controller medications for asthma 273 of 369 Final Update 1 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Rescue medication use (% rescue-free days): Updated Analysis Studies included: O’Byrne et al. ICS/LABA Study name Statistics for each study Std diff in means and 95% CI Std diff Standard Lower Upper in means error Variance limit limit Z-Value p-Value Bousquet 2007, -0. The overall result becomes significant in favor of BUD/FM MART (SMD -0. Sensitivity Analysis - % Rescue-free days BUD/FM MART vs. ICS/LABA- Rescue-free days Study name Statistics with study removed Std diff in means (95%CI) with study removed Standard Lower Upper Point error Variance limit limit Z-Value p-Value Bousquet, -0.
Meta-analysis of diagnostic procedures for Pneumocystis carinii pneu- monia in HIV-1-infected patients cheap levitra professional 20mg otc erectile dysfunction pills list. Degen O levitra professional 20 mg erectile dysfunction treatment fruits, van Lunzen J levitra professional 20mg line erectile dysfunction treatment in trivandrum, Horstkotte MA, Sobottka I, Stellbrink HJ. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after the dis- continuation of secondary prophylaxis. Critical importance of long-term adherence to care in HIV infected patients in the cART era: new insights from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia cases over 2004-2011 in the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort. PLoS One 2014, 9:e94183 Desmet S, Van Wijngaerden E, Maertens J, et al. Serum (1-3)-beta-D-glucan as a tool for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or hematological malignancy. DiRienzo AG, van Der Horst C, Finkelstein DM, et al. Efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the preven- tion of bacterial infections in a randomized prophylaxis trial of patients with advanced HIV infection. Serum antibody levels to the Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycopro- tein in the diagnosis of P. Oral atovaquone compared with intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Ribosomal RNA sequence shows Pneumocystis carinii to be a member of the fungi. A randomized trial of daily and thrice-weekly trimethoprim-sul- famethoxazole for the prevention of PCP in HIV-infected persons. Atovaquone compared with dapsone for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV infection who cannot tolerate trimethoprim, sulfonamides, or both. Accuracy of a routine real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Fisk M, Sage EK, Edwards SG, Cartledge JD, Miller RF. Outcome from treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneu- monia with co-trimoxazole. Serologic responses to Pneumocystis Proteins in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients With and Without Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia. Clinical efficacy of first- and second-line treatments for HIV-asso- ciated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a tri-centre cohort study. Helweg-Larsen J, Benfield TL, Eugen-Olsen J, Lundgren JD, Lundgren B. Effects of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of AIDS-associated PCP. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients. Comparison of atovaquone (566C80) with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Ioannidis JP, Cappelleri JC, Skolnik PR, Lau J, Sacks HS. A meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and toxicity of Pneumocystis carinii prophylactic regimens. A cluster of Pneumocystis infections among renal transplant recipients: molecular evidence of colonized patients as potential infectious sources of Pneumocystis jirovecii. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole dose escalation versus direct rechal- lenge for PCP prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with previous adverse reaction to TMP-SMZ. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients in the late- HAART era in developed countries. Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase but not dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations correlate with prior trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or dapsone use. Emergence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in the AIDS Era. Asymptomatic carriage of Pneumocystis jiroveci in subjects undergoing bronchoscopy: a prospective study. Epidemiology and clinical relevance of Pneumocystis jirovecii Frenkel, 1976 dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations. Miller RF, Evans HE, Copas AJ, Huggett JF, Edwards SG, Walzer PD. Seasonal variation in mortality of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Pentamidine aerosol versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii in AIDS. Pneumocystis: a novel pathogen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Improved survival with highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Is there anything new in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia? Patients presenting with AIDS in the HAART era: a collaborative cohort analysis. Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneu- monia in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial by the CIOP Study Group. Mutations of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydrofolate reductase associ- ated with failure of prophylaxis.
Was the assignment to treatment groups really random? Adequate approaches to sequence generation: Computer-generated random numbers Random-numbers table Inferior approaches to sequence generation: Use of alternation buy levitra professional 20 mg with amex erectile dysfunction drugs without side effects, case record number levitra professional 20 mg low price erectile dysfunction how common, birth date discount levitra professional 20 mg on line erectile dysfunction treatment herbal, or day of week Not reported 2. Adequate approaches to concealment of randomization: Centralized or pharmacy-controlled randomization Serially numbered identical containers On-site computer-based system with a randomization sequence that is not readable until allocation Inferior approaches to concealment of randomization: Use of alternation, case record number, birth date, or day of week Open random-numbers list Triptans Page 69 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Serially numbered envelopes (Even sealed opaque envelopes can be subject to manipulation. Were the groups similar at baseline in terms of prognostic factors? Were outcome assessors blinded to the treatment allocation? Was the patient kept unaware of the treatment received? Did the article include an intention-to-treat analysis or provide the data needed to calculate it (number assigned to each group, number of subjects who finished in each group, and their results)? Did the article report attrition, crossovers, adherence, and contamination? Is there important differential loss to followup or overall high loss to followup (giving numbers for each group)? How similar is the population to the population to which the intervention would be applied? What was the funding source and role of funder in the study? Nonrandomized Studies Assessment of internal validity 1. Was the selection of patients for inclusion unbiased? In other words, was any group of patients systematically excluded? Triptans Page 70 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project 2. Is there important differential loss to follow-up or overall high loss to follow-up? Was there a clear description of the techniques used to identify the events? Was there unbiased and accurate ascertainment of events (independent ascertainers and validation of ascertainment technique)? Were potential confounding variables and risk factors identified and examined using acceptable statistical techniques? Did the duration of follow-up correlate with reasonable timing for investigated events? How similar is the population to the population to which the intervention would be applied? What was the funding source and role of funder in the study? Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Triptans Page 71 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Appendix D. Excluded studies Reason for Study exclusion Adelman JU, Mannix LK and Von Seggern RL. Rizatriptan tablet versus wafer: Wrong Drug or Patient preference. Consistency of response to sumatriptan Wrong Outcome nasal spray across patient subgroups and migraine types. Oral zolmitriptan is effective in the acute Wrong Population treatment of cluster headache. Efficacy of sumatriptan injection Wrong Publication for the acute treatment of migraine in a primarily non-caucasian group of Type-ABSTRACT patients. Subcutaneous sumatriptan comparative Wrong Publication study versus placebo in migraine attacks. Efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous Wrong Drug or almotriptan for the treatment of acute migraine: a randomized, double-blind, Comparison parallel-group, dose-finding study. Equivalent efficacy of oral almotriptan, a Wrong Publication new 5-HT1B/1D agonist, compared with sumatriptan 100mg. Migraine treatment with rizatriptan and non- Wrong Outcome triptan usual care medications: a pharmacy-based study. Sumatriptan injection reduces productivity Wrong Publication loss during a migraine attack: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Effectiveness of intranasal zolmitriptan in Wrong Population acute cluster headache: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. Comparison Dahlof CG, Lipton RB, McCarroll KA, et al. Within-patient consistency of Wrong Design response of rizatriptan for treating migraine. Efficacy of a fixed combination of Wrong Drug or indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine versus sumatriptan in acute Comparison treatment of multiple migraine attacks: a multicenter, randomized, crossover trial. Triptans Page 72 of 80 Final Report Update 4 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Reason for Study exclusion Diener HC, Pascual J and Vega P. Comparison of rizatriptan 10mg versus Wrong Publication zolmitriptan 2. Type-ABSTRACT ONLY Disability in Strategies of Care Study g. Stratified care vs step care strategies for Wrong Design migraine: the Disability in Strategies of Care (DISC) Study: A randomized trial.