B. Akascha. Rutgers University. 2019.
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Every effort has been made to ensure the information contained in these materials is accurate and reflects the latest scientific knowledge on its subject matter. Reproduction of these materials in the course of conducting any for-profit training program is prohibited. Exact and complete copies of the materials may be reproduced solely for the purpose of assisting departments in building a self-sufficient, non-profit training program. A-69 January 2007 iii International Association of Fire Fighters Infectious Diseases Course Overview Course Structure This training for Hazardous Materials Response: Infectious Diseases contains four units: Unit 1: Staying Well Unit 2: The Pathogens Unit 3: Prevention Unit 4: Post Exposure Strategies Unit 5: Avian & Pandemic Influenza (optional/to be developed) The Students Role This course is designed for students to be active learners, rather than passive recipients of information. Interactive activities encourage students to share knowledge about exposures to infectious diseases, which adds meaningful context to the instruction. This edition of the course requires the students to interact in: Problem-solving activities Written exercises Case studies Current event discussions Performance demonstrations iv January 2007 Infectious Diseases International Association Unit 1 Staying Well of Fire Fighters Unit 1: Staying Well Time Activities (minutes) Page Introduction 10 1-2 What You Cant See May Harm You (Video) 20 1-4 Why Learn About Infectious Diseases? This course is designed to educate you about the risk of exposure to infectious diseases on the job and present preventive strategies that can be implemented to reduce this risk. Exposure to infectious disease represents a serious problem to fire and rescue personnel. This course offers information about common infectious diseases that can affect the health and safety of first responders and their family members. You should be aware of the symptoms, prevention and transmission methods and treatment options for each disease so that you can protect yourself in the workplace. While this course may discuss some of these issues, this will continue to be an evolving field. Why is it important to you, as a first responder, to avoid exposure to infectious diseases? January 2007 1-5 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 1 Staying Well Guidelines for Teamwork Designate: IncidentCommander Supervises team discussions OperationsChief Recordstheteamsideas Public Information Officer Briefs the whole class SafetyOfficers Ensures team w/in time limits Rotateroles 1-8 1-6 January 2007 Infectious Diseases International Association Unit 1 Staying Well of Fire Fighters Guidelines for Teamwork Throughout the course, you will work together in teams. He or she should make sure the writing on the easel pad is large enough to be read from the back of the classroom. January 2007 1-9 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 1 Staying Well Objective State what you would like to learn in this class. It is a personal commitment personnel must make to survive and sustain a career in the fire service. January 2007 1-13 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 1 Staying Well Objective State why wellness is important to first responders. Similarly, the purpose of staying well is to assure public safety by maintaining responder health and preventing the spread of disease. January 2007 1-15 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 1 Staying Well Objective List: Your responsibilities for your own wellness. Think about what your responsibilities are when it comes to staying healthy as well as what your department can/should do to help you in your endeavors. My responsibilities for my own wellness include: My department is responsible for helping me stay healthy by: January 2007 1-17 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 1 Staying Well Objective Complete the Annual Medical Exams and Screenings worksheet indicating the date you last received each exam or screening, and determine when the next exams and screenings need to be performed. The Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative recommends these annual medical exams and screenings (Appendix 4 Medical Exam Items). If you cant remember if/when an exam or screening was received, mark it with two stars (**) and check with your physicians office. Medical Exam Date last or Screening Importance received Physical This may be the only time that you have professional contact with a evaluation member of the medical community. Use this time wisely to get answers to any questions or concerns you might have about your health. Body Body composition refers to the relative amounts of the bodys fat tissue Composition and lean body mass. Excess body fat increases the workload and amplifies heat stress experienced by fire fighters by preventing the efficient dissipation of heat. In addition, added body fat elevates the energy cost of weight-dependent tasks, contributes to injuries and increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory tests Prior to having your physical evaluation, you should have your blood drawn and analyzed. This is critical in facilitating your physicians ability to provide a comprehensive physical examination and address concerns with you during the exam. Vision tests Vision testing is critical as it can indicate cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Hearing Hearing tests are critical since fire fighters are constantly exposed to evaluation noise from sirens, air horns, apparatus engines, and powered hand tools used in the line-of-duty. Studies have shown excessive hearing loss in the fire service; this is a result of the interaction between noise exposures and other chemicals found in the work environment. Spirometry Baseline spriometry must be assessed if you are required to wear breathing apparatus. It is useful if you have a history of respiratory health problems as a baseline for later comparison.
But reli- argue that ethnicity and race are simply sociopolitical gious preference would still be a substitute variable concepts that have little procyclidine 5 mg with amex treatment room, if any generic procyclidine 5mg without a prescription medicine 8 pill, basis in scientific real- since many Hispanics may express a Catholic religious ity best 5 mg procyclidine symptoms kidney failure. Knowledge about gious doctrine or prior experiences with birth control or such factors might contribute to more effective diagno- the lack of experience with birth control methods. Still others argue that even if Measures of these might well show much better ability group genetic differences do matter, cultural and social to predict birth control use than simply having the sta- differences between ethnic groups contribute greatly to tus of Hispanic ethnicity. Commonly, nic groups may be predictors of average health status, that means measuring past behaviors or current atti- it is much more important to examine differences tudes or beliefs fairly directly rather than simply assess- within the ethnic group than to examine the differences ing ethnic group status. Additional problems with using mixed ethnicity or individuals who are not aware ethnicity to explain or predict health are substantial. Two major of great diversity within ethnic groups is compounded problems are apparent with this thinking. First, as pre- by researchers who homogenize so-called minority viously discussed, there is considerable variation among groups by comparing the responses of all minority eth- individuals within an ethnic group on almost all char- nic groups to whites, as if all members of all minority acteristics. Second, ethnicity usually serves as a substi- ethnic groups share something in common. Researchers often attempt to associated with the outcome is easier to defend scien- control for such differences using statistics, but seri- tifically. For example, if a researcher were studying use ous problems exist for interpreting such analyses that of birth control and determined that those who identi- equate groups using various covariates. Simply put, fied themselves as Hispanic were significantly less real differences in groups cannot be meaningfully elim- likely to use birth control pills, it would be scientifically inated using abstract mathematical corrections. A variable that might be closer to the outcome Recommendations for the application of several (here, use of a specific birth control method) might be guidelines for using ethnicity in research have been religious preference because Hispanics predominantly made by many authors: (a) make clear the assumptions 256 Exercise that are the basis for the use and assessment of ethnicity Suggested Reading in a particular context; (b) test specific hypotheses Alvidrez, J. Psychosocial treatment research about specific aspects of culture or other characteristics with ethnic minority populations: Ethical considerations in con- of ethnicity rather than using ethnicity as a substitute ducting clinical trials. The importance of race and ethnic background in bio- diversity within the group; (d) fully report in scientific medical research and clinical practice. Trends in racial likely to be found in naturally occurring groups; (f) use and ethnic-specific rates for the health status indicators: United several measures and several assessment methods, States, 19901998. The structuring of ethnic inequalities in health: where feasible, to be sure that the concept being mea- Economic position, racial discrimination, and racism. Methodological issues in assessment experts to ensure appropriate translation of language research with ethnic minorities. Psychological Assessment, 7, and concepts of the measures being used; and (h) use 367375. When we talk about American ethnic groups what study results to generate further research rather than do we mean? The psychological measurement of cultural ethnicity should entail careful thinking and planning to syndromes. Unpacking cultural It is clear that various ethnic groups as commonly factors in adaptation to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medical Care, assessed differ on many characteristics, including many 40, 129139. The medicalization of race: Scientific legitimization groups differ on many other characteristics, such as of a flawed social construct. Some dubious premises in research and theory attitudes, beliefs, and values, among many others. That is, it is not only impor- tant to recognize the diversity among the many ethnic Exercise Women can expect to maintain a youthful groups in the United States and the world, but also to and independent life by establishing a regular exercise recognize the immense diversity with each of those program. The multiple benefits of exercise for women groups and to attempt to understand how the greater are well documented in research conducted over the diversity may or may not contribute to variation in past 30 years. Psychologists disease is the number one cause of death in women, have observed that walking or running has both physio- with an estimated mortality rate of 500,000 women per logic and psychological benefits for people who are year in the United States. A study of women suffering from mild an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality depression found that when they became involved in a in women who have coronary artery disease. A recent study concluded that women who Physical fitness also leads to increased mental alert- walked at least 3 hours per week cut their risk of dying ness and capacity; sleep quality improves and that leads of cardiovascular disease by 40%. Research has shown that self-esteem Exercise improves cardiovascular mortality by and self-control increase with regular exercise, enhanc- reducing the major risk factors for heart disease. Exercise also promotes decreases in body weight and The benefits of exercise start when you begin. It offers a nonpharmaceutical approach to Recommendations to increase physical activity need not ward off the expense, side effects, and morbidity and include formal regimens or gym memberships. Regular exercise com- beginning an exercise program, whether formal or bined with a healthy diet is the best strategy for informal, should strive to make it enjoyable, choosing a preventing heart disease. Osteoporosis affects cise, it is essential that beginners visit their doctor for a in excess of 20 million postmenopausal American physical checkup and obtain medical clearance before women. The 30-min sessions can take Although osteoporosis can be a debilitating disease, the place all at once, or they can be divided into 10- or potential consequences are preventable by combining 15-min sessions. Cardiovascular benefits are achieved low-impact and resistance exercises with a calcium- by reaching and maintaining 6080% of the target heart enriched diet. Your target heart rate Regular activity that includes both weight bearing is calculated by subtracting your age from 220 and mul- and resistance exercises also improves bone mineral tiplying that number by 0. Cardiovascular exercises include walk- exercise can halt and may reverse bone loss. For example, depend on family members or long-term care facilities free-weights or weight machines both contribute to to aid in their daily living activities. Resistance training should be included porotic fractures is a critical component of the quality 24 times in a weekly exercise program. Stronger bone of life for the growing population of older American is built by training the major muscle groups of both the women. Work muscle groups on alter- In addition to physical benefits, regular exercise nating days in order to prevent muscle damage.