The ostrich louse buy methotrexate 2.5mg overnight delivery symptoms xanax withdrawal, Struthiolipeurus struthionis generic 2.5mg methotrexate free shipping medicine journal, is commonly found on ostriches worldwide discount 2.5 mg methotrexate with visa treatment alternatives. Quill mites are responsive to monthly treatments with ivermectin at standard doses. Clinical signs are characterized by ocular or nasal discharge, and birds may be dyspneic and appear unkempt. Affected birds should be iso- lated immediately and flockmates should be care- fully observed. Adequate ventilation and reduced air- borne debris are necessary to prevent the spread of infections in the flock. Air sacculitis and pneumonia are most commonly caused by bacteria orAspergillus spp. Bilat- eral cataracts must be removed, and surgery has chewing lice feed on skin scale and feathers and by been successful. Infestation is easily diagnosed by Lacerations, abrasions or ulcerations to the eye may identification of the nits glued to the barbs along the cause epiphora or blepharospasms. Foreign bodies shaft of feathers, particularly under the wing (Figure may or may not be found. The ostrich louse fly, Struthiobosca struthionis, cases is usually clear and often is present in only one is a minor annoyance to African birds but may also bite eye. Standard ocular the feather shaft or along the external groove of the therapies used in other birds are effective in ratites shaft. Ticks from a variety of mammalian, avian and reptile hosts have been reported to infest ostriches. They Eye infections generally cause the production of a may cause blemishes on the skin that reduce its purulent discharge and will usually be bilateral commercial value. Cytology and cultures are necessary to tick species are potential vectors of livestock dis- determine the etiologic agent. The discovery of ticks on imported ostriches common with upper respiratory infections. A blocked released from private quarantine in 1989 caused the nasolacrimal duct is recognized clinically by United States Department of Agriculture to impose epiphora and swelling within the lower lid. The Egg The general principles of egg management for ratites are no different than those for other avian species. The maintenance of accurate records, in- ingestion of parsley was associated with a photosen- cluding the analysis of unhatched eggs, is an abso- sitization reaction in an ostrich (see Chapter 37). Adult lice small eggs lose excessive moisture during incubation and their eggs can be visualized along the shaft of the and produce small dehydrated chicks that rarely sur- feather (Figure 48. Feather picking can be caused by overcrowding, ex- The shell of an egg balances two opposing functions: cessive exposure to light at night and a lack of avail- the egg shell must allow the free exchange of oxygen, able food. Feather picking is common in adult os- carbon dioxide and water vapor, yet inhibit the pene- triches maintained in small, barren paddocks and tration of infectious agents. Thick shells and shells may be a reflection of malnutrition or environmental with low porosity inhibit gas and water vapor ex- stresses (Figure 48. Large deplumed areas of change, while thin, highly porous or defective shells skin are subject to sunburn. These birds will usually may lose excessive water vapor and readily allow respond to an enriched environment, especially bacterial penetration (Color 48. In one case, a large, reflective, chrome influenced by nutrition, disease and genetics, as well plate (mirror) was used to distract a male and pre- as by the conditions of the nest site and the egg vent him from feather picking a hen. Toxins that can cause neurologic lesions in ratites The physical health of the hen can also affect egg may include plants, oil, grease and insecticides. Pathogens colonizing the reproductive tract dotoxins produced by bacteria can lead to severe may result in a thin or absent shell, or may be a ataxia. Infectious causes of neurologic problems in- source of infection for eggs that appear otherwise clude viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Soft shells may also occur as a result of dietary bristle brush to remove gross organic debris and deficiencies. The dried muci- deposition of yolk into the peritoneal cavity or abnor- nous cuticle of ratite eggs is particularly well devel- malities of the ovary. Double yolks are postulated to oped and serves as a significant barrier to bacterial occur with abnormal egg passage through the oviduct. It has been suggested that the wet washing of clean eggs removes this cuticle and in- The physical characteristics of an egg have a strong creases the incidence of infection over that of a dry genetic basis. Os- Incubation trich breeding stock from free-ranging linage will retain their full natural variability in egg quality and The incubation temperatures and humidities re- specific incubation requirements. Many of them are inadequate in several aspects, Management practices require that a clean nest such and faulty incubators are a common cause of hatch- as sand or straw be available for egg laying and that ery problems. Incubators should generate a uniform eggs to be artificially incubated are collected and temperature throughout the cabinet and maintain disinfected promptly. Ostriches typically lay in the the temperature within narrow limits, preferably evening hours, while emus frequently lay shortly one- or two-tenths of a degree. Eggs should be gently collected from the are particularly sensitive to decreasing tempera- nest and transported by hand to the preparation tures, and it is imperative that backup electrical area. Excessive jarring of the egg contents or damage power be available for incubation equipment so that to the shell can be fatal to the developing embryo. Cold storage of eggs allows the use of efficient batch Ventilation is the amount of fresh air brought into incubation and brooding systems and is a routine the incubator. Egg- calculated at 50 cubic feet of fresh air per hour per turning is not necessary for storage periods of less 100 eggs. Ideally, eggs are stored directly in the lation of carbon dioxide and severely reduces hatch- incubation trays and the entire tray may then be ability. Circulation functions to maintain uni- Egg washing is a controversial issue in ratite produc- formity of temperature, humidity and gas levels tion.

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Yang buy 2.5 mg methotrexate with amex medications information, “Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan purchase 2.5 mg methotrexate with visa medicine 906,” Taiwan induced diabetes in rats [28 buy cheap methotrexate 2.5mg line symptoms ulcerative colitis, 29]. Du, “Diabetes is an infammatory disease: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group evidence from traditional Chinese medicines,” Diabetes, Obesity studies,” Clinical Terapeutics,vol. Peltier, “Painful diabetic neuropathy: a human diseases,” in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Scientifc management-centered review,” Clinical Diabetes,vol. Hider, “Relevant activities of research,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine,vol. Man-Yuen Sze, Alzheimer’s disease,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, “Lessons learnt from evidence-based approach of using chinese vol. Liang, “Survey of current studies of efects of traditional Chinese medicine on nerve growth factor and diabeticperipheralneuropathy,”ZhongguoZhongyaoZazhi,vol. Liu, “Topical herbal medicine for treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Forschende Komple- mentarmedizin, vol. Wasner, “Neuropathic pain: diagno- sis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment,” Te Lancet Neurology, vol. Coppini,“Tepathogenesis and management of painful diabetic neuropathy: a review,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. El Rabey 1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Introduction production and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms leading to increased oxidative stress. Tis progression is characterized found in the cytoplasm of the normal nonactivated cells by declining glomerular fltration rate and kidney structural binding to its inhibitor (I- B). Once Hyperglycemiaisamajorcausefortheincreasedglyca- in the nucleus, it stimulates the transcription of its controlled tion of proteins and lipids that, in turn, enhances the gen- genes. Mice with blood glucose with optimal glycemic control, the abnormal lipid profle lower than 250 mg/dL were excluded from the experiment. In diabetes mellitus, Miceofallgroupswerehousedincagesandreceivednormal hyperlipidemia is considered an independent and major diet and tap water ad libitum in a constant environment determinant of progression of renal disease [10]. Bodyweights mainly composed of dimers, oligomers, and polymers of andbloodglucoselevelsweremeasuredregularly. Teir end of the experiment (12 weeks afer induction of diabetes), degree of polymerization is generally distributed between 2 animals were sacrifced using ether anaesthesia. Te third meability, and fragility and to afect enzyme systems includ- part was used for preparation of the nuclear and cytoplasmic ing phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase [14]. All in apoE−/mice, an animal model previously demonstrated analyses were performed in accordance with the manuals to have a series of pathological conditions including dyslipi- provided by the manufacturer. Hyperlipidemia per se is asso- ciated with the development of early renal lesions in apoE−/mice [17]. Urine samples were col- lected by placing the mice in individual metabolic cages 2. Cytoplasmic and nuclear frac- for 24 h before diabetes mellitus had been induced and tions of the mice kidneys were separated as described [7]. All analyses were performed in accordance with the 15 minutes, mixed again, and centrifuged at 13000 rpm. Te supernatant contained the cytoplasmic extract ∘ and was transferred to a fresh tube and kept at –80 C. Measurement of Urinary and Renal 8-Hydroxy-2 -deoxy- ∘ 4 C, 25% glycerol, 420 mM NaCl, 1. Afer washing 5 times, the immunoreactive proteins quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique. Renal tissues were col- lected afer animal sacrifce, fxed in 10% formalin, processed 2. Te urinary 8-isoprostane obtained as described in the Materials and Methods section. Tus, our data suggest that part of the development of diabetic complications [36]. Te obtained data were in line with those of previous studies [5, 7, 9, 15, 28, 30, 31, 37, 38]. Umegaki, “Grape seed extract pre- dietary adjunct for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and vents H2O2-induced chromosomal damage in human lym- its complications. It is also considered as an important phoblastoid cells,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin,vol. Lernmark, “Te low dose high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein streptozotocin murine model of type 1 (insulin-dependent) endothelial cells,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, diabetes mellitus: studies in vivo and in vitro of the modulating vol. Yagi, “Te occurrence of against tubular injury,” Cell Biochemistry and Function,vol. Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines and their fused ring systems attenuate 8 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine oxidative stress and prolong lifespan of caenorhabiditis elegans,” [38] I. Yagi, “Assay for lipid peroxides in Shaoyao-San on advanced glycation end-product-mediated animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction,” Analytical Bio- renal injury in streptozotocin-diabetic rats,” Evidence-Based chemistry,vol. Mannervik, “Levels of glu- tathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. Mourad, “Life span extension of Caenorhabditis elegans by novel pyridoperimidine derivative,” Archives of Pharmacal Research,vol. Sayed, “Ferulsinaic acid attenuation of advanced glyca- tion end products extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis ele- gans,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,vol.

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A bilateral the administration of cytotoxic drugs or irradiation buy 2.5mg methotrexate overnight delivery treatment 1st degree heart block, obstruction will rapidly lead to visceral gout purchase 2.5mg methotrexate with amex medications for anxiety. Unilat- whereby the dissolution of a neoplastic mass liber- eral obstructions will lead to atrophy and compensa- ates a heavy load of nucleic acid that must be catabol- tory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney buy methotrexate 2.5 mg on line medicine qid. The uric acid excre- tion rises suddenly, uric acid precipitates in renal Renal Hemorrhage tubules and acute oliguric renal failure ensues. Con- Renal hemorrhage can be caused iatrogenically dur- tributing factors include excretion of an acid urine ing endoscopy if improper technique is used. Spor- secondary to metabolic acidosis, dehydration and the adic renal hemorrhage in male turkeys and Psittaci- use of uricosuric drugs (adrenocorticosteroids). It can also occur as a taining a high alkaline urine flow by infusing manni- complication of renal pathology (eg, tumor). The bird showed signs of depression 18 hours after the third dose of allopurinol was given. A diagnosis of renal tubular nephrosis Allopurinol caused by oxypurinol, xanthine or uric acid deposits 24 A recent study has demonstrated that oral admini- in the tubuli was made. Intravenous and subcutane- stration of allopurinol does not prevent the occur- ous saline, corticosteroids and furosemide (1 mg/kg) rence of physiologic postprandial hyperuricemia in were administered twice daily in an attempt to re- Red-tailed Hawks. Urine production was restored administration of allopurinol caused a severe hype- and, after 24 hours, plasma uric acid concentration ruricemia and induced gout in three out of six, clini- had decreased to 3,814 µmol/l. Plasma uric to reduce plasma uric acid concentration in man with acid had decreased to 1,639µmol/l 72 hours later. The results of this study seem to bird fully recovered after two weeks of intensive indicate that allopurinol is contraindicated for the treatment with intravenous fluids and supportive treatment of hyperuricemia in Red-tailed Hawks. Assessment of fluid re- therapy based on single observations in individual quirements can be based on this general outline but birds must be cautiously applied to the management must be monitored by daily weight determination of any avian disease (including gout) until research and observation for clinical signs that would indicate can determine that a therapy is safe. In patients that are anorectic and not receiving assisted feedings, some The extreme renal tubular nephrosis observed fol- allowance should be made to account for tissue ca- lowing allopurinol administration in Red-tailed tabolism. Sodium, potas- purinol, the relatively insoluble and nephrotoxic end- sium and protein intake should be discontinued and product of allopurinol. Alternatively, renal damage calories should be given in the form of fat and carbo- might have been caused by the deposition of xanthine hydrates. Furosemide of uric acid, and concentrations of these substances should be used in an attempt to restore or increase increase when the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, al- urine flow and potassium excretion. High-pressure liquid In the polyuric phase that follows the anuric phase, chromatography is necessary to determine which fluid and electrolyte balance should be carefully metabolic product is being deposited in the tubules. Intravenous and subcutaneous in- the character of the deposits in the tubules, because fusions with lactated Ringer’s solution should be they are generally washed away during preparation continued on a daily basis. Prednisolone has been used in budgeri- Products Mentioned in the Text gars with renal tumors. Neumann U, Kummerfeld N: Neo- test for the differentiation of polyuric nand Enke Verlag, 1968. Leg paresis in a black palm cockatoo and visceral gout induced by allopuri- findings with special consideration of 2. Avian Pathol 12:353- erigar - A review of cases seen at the Wildl Med 23(1):122-126, 1992. Proc Assoc of Avian Vet, analysis of urine in racing pigeons medizinische Gesellschaft e. Keller P: Enzymaktivitäten in Or- cial Reference to the Racing Pigeon, avian urinalysis and case reports. Am J Physiol ids with special attention for clinical Proc 1st Intl Conf Zoo & Avian Med, Vet, Houston, 1988, pp 207-218. Long S: Acid-base balance and uri- Renal mucoid materials in pigeons demic Press, 1983, pp 107-133. Conversely, chronic rhinitis and air sacculitis can fulminate for many years with subtle clinical changes. The difficulty in distinguishing between clinical signs originating from the upper versus the 22 lower respiratory system makes the diagnosis and treatment of these problems challenging. Respira- tory health is best maintained by frequent exposure to fresh air and sunlight, a proper plane of nutrition and flighted exercise. Harrison ate subtle changes in posture, wing position, respira- tory rate and respiratory pattern that may indicate an abnormality. A bird uses its intercostal muscula- ture to expand and depress its chest, creating a “bel- lows” action that moves air into and out of the respi- ratory system. An increase in abdominal effort or head movement may be recognized in association with increased respira- tion following exercise, but should return to normal within minutes of ceasing exertional activity. Lung and lower respiratory tract problems are usually associated with a rhyth- mic jerking of the tail (tail-bob). A bird in severe respiratory distress may also move its head forward in an effort to increase air intake. If the respiratory problem is associated with excessive fluid produc- tion, bubbling and gurgling sounds are common on both inspiration and expiration (Table 22. Overt signs of respiratory disease are easy to identify and include oculonasal discharge, stained or matted feathers around the nares, sneezing, coughing, dysp- nea or audible inspirations or expirations (Figure 22. Changes in pitch or vocalization of the patient may indicate problems in the glottis, trachea or syr- inx. The area was thoroughly cleaned and severely matted Dyspnea may be caused by chronic lung or air sac feathers were removed. The discharge was found to be associated consolidation or by an acute reduction in the amount with conjunctivitis and not sinusitis. The bird was successfully managed by fre- induced by protracted respiratory disease, it is usu- quently flushing the eyes with sterile saline.

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Physicochemical analysis of the powdered fruit were determined and found to be more soluble in distilted water and ethanol buy 2.5 mg methotrexate amex treatment whiplash. The obtained crude extracts were with hexane and the resultant aqueous layer was again partitioned with ethyl acteated order 2.5mg methotrexate with mastercard symptoms 97 jeep 40 oxygen sensor failure. From this research buy discount methotrexate 2.5 mg on-line treatment for shingles, it was demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Morinda citirifolia L. Moreover, acute toxicity of the extract was not detacted in all the three groups (1. In this study, morphological and histological characters as well as pharmacognostical aspects of Eupatorium horsfieldii Miq. The preliminary phytochemical investigations carried out on various soluble extract reveal the presence of amino acid, glycoside, reducing sugar, sterol, triterpene, saponin and phenolic. Altogether 324 coconuts from the two varieties commonly found in Yangon were divided into 4 stages and analysed for physical and chemical characterization. The sterility of the coconut water before and after exposure to the environment was also studied. The objective was to find out whether the Myanmar coconut water is suitable for oral rehydration, and if so, which stage or stages would be optimal for that purpose. Although there are some differences in the physical characteristics and chemical composition between the coconut waters of the tall and golden varieties, the general composition between the coconut waters of the tall and golden varieties, the general of the coconut water decreased with maturity (e. Despite the apparently low sodium and high potassium content, it is concluded that Myanmar coconut water (particularly the immature stages of both varieties) may be regarded an optimal food- based oral rehydration fluid. Myanmar people had a long cultural background of using traditional remedies, which are still practiced and relied upon about 80% of the rural population. In this paper, authors present some account of Myanmar system of Traditional medicine and Myanmar efforts to functionally integrate two systems of medicine in some areas. Integration of Traditional medicine into modern medicine in the fields of health care system, laboratory research, clinical research, clinical practive, medical education and pharmaceutical production are described. Some constraints faced in practice in integration of two systems are also presented. Myanmar, moving towards the development of integrated medicine is such that it is comprehensive and considering the two systems of medicine as complementary to each other rather than more alternative, thus offering the best possible care and benefit for the patients. The formaulary was produced encompassing 48 traditional drugs as described in the Ministry of Health publication "Formulations Used by the Traditional Medicine Department", October 1982. The formulary describes the composition of the formulations, expressing the individual ingredients in terms of precise weights and measures, their dosages, their uses, the physico-chemical and botanical characteristics of the formulations, their methodologies of analysis, and a summary of their pharmacological and toxicological effects. In addition to the above use, the plant is also used as a tonic, a carminative and a diuretic. The present study was done to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of watery extract of leaves of Camellia sinesis Linn. Watery extraction method was used because it is like tea brew consumed by many people. The nephroprotective effect of extract was studied on albino mice of both sexes weighing 180 to 200gm. The blood samples collected by mean of cardiac puncture were used to determine urea and creatinine. Mice kidneys were made into tissues slides for histological examination at four sites of renal tissues, i. The phytochemical analysis was done with dried powder of leaves of Camellia sinesis Linn. Myanmar green tea powder contained flavonoid and polyphenol which is claimed to be the substances that can give nephroprotective effect. In conclusion, this study proved scientifically that watery extract of Camellia sinesis Linn. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate scientifically the anti-diarrhoeal effects of rhizome of Acorus calamus Linn. The dried powdered of rhizome of Lin-ne was extracted with both water and 95% ethanol to obtain aqueous and ethanolic extract respectively. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic, aqueous extract and dried rhizome powder of Lin-ne showed that they have alkaloids, steroids, tannin, glycoside, saponin, carbohydrate and triterpene. Acute toxicity study of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Lin-ne was performed by using the albino mice. Acute toxicity study of aqueous extract showed no lethality even with the maximum permissible dose of the extract 16g/kg. General screening of pharmacological actions of the extract, no abnormality was detected except slight sedation effect. In vivo study, there was dose-dependent reduction in castor oil-induced diarrhea in all doses (i. Both extracts of Lin-ne cause relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle by as yet unknown mechanisms. Paper chromatographic analysis of free amino acids in etiolated seedlings of Cicer aritenum and Vigna catjang Walp. Khin Swe Win; Myint Myint Gyi; Yi Yi Win (2); Khin Than Swe; Than Aung, Maung; Thant Zin, Maung; Khin Latt, Maung; Thet Htun, Maung; Mya Mya Thein; Thein Aung. Analysis was qualitative only and the amino acids separated by two dimensional paper chromatography. The morphological and taxonomical studies on both vegetative and reproductive parts have also been carried out. The genus Crinum is reported to contain an alkaloidal compound, lycorine, as one of the major constituent. For this reason, extraction and isolation of lycorine has been attempted from bulb of Crinum asiaticum Linn.

Z. Daro. University of La Vernee.

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